The United Kingdom (abbreviated from "The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland") is the political name of the country which consists of England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland (sometimes known as Ulster).
Great Britain is the name of the island which is made up of England, Scotland, Wales, whereas the British Isles is the geographical name of all the islands off the north-west coast of the European continent. In everyday speech "Britain" is used to mean the United Kingdom.
The flag of the United Kingdom, known as the Union Jack, is made up of three crosses. The upright red cross on a white background is the cross of the 1st George, the patron saint of England. The white diagonal cross on a blue background is the cross of St. Andrew, the patron saint of Scotland, The red diagonal cross on a white background is the cross of St. Patrick, the patron saint of Ireland.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is a constitutional monarchy. Britain does not have a written constitution. Parliament is the most important authority in Britain.
The monarch serves formally as head of state. The present sovereign is Queen Elizabeth II (the second).
The House of Commons consists of Members of Parliament. General elections are held every five years. Ail citizens aged 18 have the right to vote.
There are few political parties in Britain. The main ones are: the Conservative Party, the Labour Party.
The United States of America is a federal republic consisting of 50 states. Each state has its own government («state government*). In some ways the United States is like 50 small countries.
The government of the USA act according to the Constitution which was signed by the first thirteen representatives of thirteen original American states in 1787. The document was written in 1787 and since that time twenty six Amendments have been added. The first ten Amendments were simply rights or the Bill of rights. According to the Constitution the USA is a republic. So, the officials of any rank are elected by US citizens. Every citizen has rights which can not be violated.
The Constitution proclaims a federal system of government which keeps both the states and the federal power from getting too much power. It means that the federal government is given certain powers, for example, to make peace or war, to issue money and to regulate the trade and so on.
The Constitution of the Republic of Kazakhstan provides for a democratic, secular and presidential system of rule. State governance is divided between executive, legislative and judicial branches. President is a head of state.
On May 21, 2007 President of Kazakhstan signed a Law amending the Constitution. These changes enlarge the power of the Parliament, enhance the role of political parties, thus transforming Kazakhstan from presidential into presidential-parliamentary republic.
Head of State: President Nursultan A. Nazarbayev.
The President of the Republic of Kazakhstan determines the main directions of the domestic and foreign policy of the state and represents Kazakhstan within the country and in international relations.
The United States is a country in the Northern Hemisphere, Western Hemisphere, and the Eastern Hemisphere. It consist of 48 contiguous states in North America, and Hawaii, an archipelago in the Pacific Ocean. There are several United States territories in the Pacific and Caribbean. The term “ United States”, when used in the geographical sense, means the continental United States, Alaska, Hawaii, Puerto Rico, Guam, and the Virgin Islands of the United States. The country shares land borders with Canada and Mexico and maritime borders with Russia, Cuba, and The Bahamas in addition to Canada and Mexico.