The United States of America was formed by emigrants in 1382. The USA makes up of 62 states. Washington, the capital of the United States is situated on the Rotomac River in the District of Columbia. The district is a piece of land which doesn't belong to any state but to all the states. All these states are sovereignty.
2. Geographical position and physical features:
The USA occupy a large territory and are situated in the central and southern part of North America. The USA is washed by the Atlantic ocean in the east and by the Pacific ocean in the west. In the north, the USA has borders on Canada and in the south on Mexico. The USA is divided into three areas: Eastern area is a highland, central area is a plain and Western area is mountains including the Rocky Mountains and the Sierra Nevada. There are five great lakes in the northern part of the USA. There are: Huron, Michigan, Supireo, Ontario and Erie. They are connected by fast rivers. There is the most famous to the whole world fall called Niagara Fall. Mississippi together with its tributary Missouri is the longest river in the world.
Mountain ranges cross the country from north to south and don't protect it against cold air from the north and warm one from the south. The USA has a continental climate.
4. National Economy.
The USA is a highly developed industrial country. Large reserves of oil, coal, iron and other minerals are solid base of development of Americans industry. Heavy industry prevails in USA, including such branches as the mining, metallurgical, engineering, chemical and high-tech industries. USA has also well-developed light industry which includes textile, tanning and footwear industries. The food industry is well developed too. Both animal husbandry and farming takes big place in the economy of the USA.
5. Political system
Under the Constitution, the federal government is divided into three branches. The Congress is vested with the legislative power and made up of two houses: the Senate and the House of Representatives. There are 435 members in the House of Representatives and 100 senators. Each state elects two members of the Senate. The executive branch is headed by the President, who proposes bills to Congress, serves as commander-in-chief of the Armed Forces. The President is chosen in nation-wide elections every 4 years. The second person in executive branch is vice President. The vice President, elected from the same political party as the President The judicial branch consists of Federal District Courts, 11 Federal Courts and the Supreme Court. Federal judges are appointed by the President. Federal courts decide cases involving federal law, conflicts between citizens of different states. Constitution is the most important document in the USA. Constitution has been amended 26 times. The Bill of Rights guarantees individual liberties: freedom of speech, religion and so on.
The USA is the South largest country in the world (after Russia, Canada and China). Including the states of Alaska and Hawaii, the US covers an area of 9 millions square km. It borders Canada on the North. Besides, it is such a great nation that it covers 4 times zone.
Almost every kind of climate may be found there but the country lies mostly in the temperate zone. The US is a varied land of forests and mountains. If we look at the map of the USA, we can see lowlands and mountains.
The center of the country is drained by the Mississippi and Missouri rivers. These rivers form a 19000 km system of water ways that are connected to the Great Lakes in the North by a canal. The Mississippi is one of the world’s great rivers; it was known to American Indians as the "father of waters". To the north – on clear days, passengers may see the five Great Lakes located between the US and Canada.
The USA is one of the greatest industrial nations in the world. With only about 5% of the world’s population and about 6% of its land area, The US produces around 25% of the world’s industrial products, agricultural goods, and services.
There are many reasons, which can be explain why the USA has been able to become the leading industrial and agricultural nation. One is its size and natural resources. The rapid progress of American industry and agriculture is also the result of the constant willingness to experiment and to find new solutions to old problems.
The USA has often been called "a nation of immigrants" because the country was built and developed by generations of immigrants. Even today America continues to take in more immigrants than any other country in the world. But in spite of all the different cultural traditions, nation origins, racial groups, and religions, this vast land is one country, whose people speak the same language, are part of the same culture and follow the same national laws and regulations.
The American people are always on the move – from one part of the country to another, from farm to city, from the city to the suburbs. 17% of all Americans move to new homes every year, searching for job opportunities, a better climate, or for other reasons. Today 3 out of 4 Americans live in towns, cities or suburbs.
The largest cities of the USA are New York, Los Angeles, Chicago, Boston, Philadelphia, Detroit, Houston, Baltimore, San Francisco. New York city is America’s largest city. Its population in 1990 was 7.3 million. It is a city of great beauty and it is also a leading cultural center.
The USA is a federal republic, a union of 50 states. The flag of the USA is called "Stars and Stripes". In the USA the American flag is a very important symbol of the country and is supposed to be treated with respect.