The Republic of Kazakhstan consists of 14 regions and 2 cities of republican submission. Nowadays it has 85 cities, 169 regions 195 settlements and 2150 districts.
The capital of Kazakhstan - Astana – is located in Northern Kazakhstan, with the population of more than 400 thousand people and the city has the status of republican submission.
Northen Kazakhstan covers 440 square km. About 2,6 million people live here. It includes Northern- Kazakh, Akmolinsk and Kostanai regions.
Some Chinese and Arabic sources tell that on the territory of modern Almaty there were ancient Sacks settlements of the III – VI centuries B.C. Over here the archaeologists found the ruins of usuni settlements – early people lived in the first century A.D. In the VIII – X centuries A.D. the town of Almaty served as a stanitsa on the trading way from Europe to China. Then Chingis khan came and everything was over… In 1854 Russia spreading its economic and political interest to the south found a military fortification Zailiyskoe there. Soon after it got the name of Vernoe and in 1867 it became a city. In 1921 Verny was renamed into Alma-Ata. And in 1929 Alma-Ata became the capital of Kazakhstan. When Kazakhstan gained its independence the city got its historical name Almaty.
Akmolinsk steppes were always the territory of interethnic ties. even Herodotus mentioned Great Silk way, which lay through these steppes in the middle of the first millennium B.C. Many caravan ways gave life to the cities with flourishing trade.
In the 19-th century Akmola was a popular trading and economic center. Its history started in 1830 when the Russian Empire founded a fortress by the Karaotkel River . From 1832 the fortress began to be called Akmolinsk and by the end of the 19-th century it became a town with the population of about 6428 people. It had three churches, 5 schools and colleges and 3 factories.
We recognize any changes in our life mainly through its effects. It's a bit like existence of the electron - we cannot see it, but we certainly observe what it does.
We witness a process by which the people of the world are unified into a single society and function together. This process is a combination of economic, technological, socio-cultural and political forces. It's a movement of people, goods, capital and ideas due to increased economic integration. Surely it is a controversial process for business and governments throughout the world.
Australia is the only country in the world that is also a continent. It is the sixth large country and the smallest continent. Australia lies between the South Pacific Ocean and the Indian Ocean. It is situated about 11 000 km southwest of North America and about 8200 km southeast of mainland Asia. The name of the country comes from Latin word «australis» which mean southern. The country's official name is Commonwealth of Australia.